HIV Primary Care: A Review

Course Content

Author

Joyce Simmons, D.N.P., A.P.R.N., CNS-BC, Continuing Educational Consultant
Activity Type: Knowledge

C.E.: 2.0 credit hour

Activity Overview

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has been afflicting patients of all ages throughout the world and is an important public health issue. Transmission of the virus continues in primary care even with prevention and treatment alternatives. According to the World Health Organization (2022), 40.1 million lives have been claimed due to HIV. In 2021, 1.5 million people acquired HIV (WHO, 2022). In the United States, there were 1.1 million people aged 13 and up who had HIV, with an astounding 13% who were unaware of their HIV diagnosis (CDC, 2019). The rate of new infections has come down significantly in the US over the last several years from 47 thousand to 30 thousand due to the federal government's back program support of the patient's care continuum (AIDSVu, 2022). Once tested, diagnosed, and attains suppression to undetectable levels, the steps a patient takes are imperative to successful outcomes. Healthcare professionals in primary care have played a significant role in providing updated treatment while promoting positive outcomes for the chronic management of HIV-infected patients.

Learning Objectives:

  • Discuss the epidemiology prevalence and burden of HIV
  • Conduct an initial assessment for an HIV patient
  • Outline the risk factors including disparities and social determinates of health
  • Review the current research on clinical updates of the new HIV variant
  • Discuss implicit bias prevention and patient care
  • Summarize and devise the appropriate treatment plan including antivirals, compliance, gender care, and opportunistic infection management

Using this educational module (enduring) does not indicate or guarantee proficiency or competence in performing any suggestions in this course.

HIV Primary Care

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has been afflicting patients of all ages throughout the world and is an important public health issue. Transmission of the virus continues in primary care even with prevention and treatment alternatives. According to the World Health Organization (2022), 40.1 million lives have been claimed due to HIV. In 2021, 1.5 million people acquired HIV (WHO, 2022). According to WHO (2022b), there were estimated to be 38.4 million patients who had HIV, and in December of 2021, "two-thirds of whom are in the WHO African Region."


WHO (2022b)

Since 2010 there has been a 32% decline in new infections, with 1.5 million patients newly diagnosed with HIV in 2021(HIV.gov, 2022). In addition, around 85% have been tested for HIV and know they have the virus(HIV.gov, 2022).


amfAR (2022)

In many areas worldwide, the patients affected are within specific populations, such as people who inject drugs, sex workers, and men who have sex with other men. In these populations, the prevalence of the virus can be much higher (amfAR, 2022).


amfAR (2022)


amfAR (2022)

Globally, adolescents and women, on average, had a 49% rate of new acquisition in ages 15-24 (amfAR, 2022). However, older women's rates varied depending on their location (amfAR, 2022). In addition, 1.7 million children and infants under 15 have contracted HIV (amfAR, 2022).